Compliance testing of IO-devices

All Profinet products need to be certified. That is done after testing by an accredited PROFIBUS & PROFINET International test lab (PITL). The full hardware, communication stack and application software is tested together. This is also known as certification testing or conformance testing.

Each manufacturer of Profinet equipment needs a Vendor ID, which is obtained from the PI Certification Office.

The tests checks the GSD file, the hardware interface and the Profinet behavior. The tests should be performed on a device from series production.

The Profinet equipment also needs to fulfill parts of the IEEE802 standards, for example uniqueness of MAC addresses. This is not tested by the test lab.

A detailed description of the certification process can be downloaded from https://www.profibus.com/download/how-to-get-a-certificate-for-a-profinet-device/

See also the general requirements on the page “Creating applications and porting to new hardware” in this documentation.

Needed for certification:

  • EMC test report

  • European Union declaration of conformity (for CE marking)

  • The user manual must be available.

  • A valid GSD file

Tool for pretesting

For Profinet members, the “Automated RT tester” tool is available for download. It is useful for pretesting before a full compliance test.

Profinet devices must fulfill “Security Level 1” with regards to the net load. This is tested by a separate tool (not the “Automated RT tester”).

Installation of Automated RT tester on a Windows PC

Unzip the downloaded file, and double-click the “AutomatedRtTester_VERSION_Setup.exe” file.

Verify that you use the latest available version.

Adjust the Ethernet network card on a Windows PC

To use the “Automated RT tester” tool you need to adjust the Ethernet interface settings of your PC. In the properties for the driver, go to the “Advanced” tab. For the “Packet priority & VLAN” select “Packet priority & VLAN Disable”. More details are given in the “Product Documentation” document for the tool.

You also need to turn off LLDP protocol for the selected network interface on the laptop running the “Automated RT tester” tool, otherwise the test case “Different access ways port-to-port” will fail. Both Windows and Simatic TIA (“PROFINET IO Protocol (DCP/LLDP)”) can have LLDP implemented.

Adjust the settings of the Ethernet card of your personal computer to use 100 Mbit/s full duplex (otherwise the test case “Different access ways port-to-port” will fail).

Set the IP address to 192.168.0.25 and netmask to 255.255.255.0.

Use a separate network for running tests with Advanced RT tester (avoid running it on a network with unrelated devices).

Supported GSD versions

The “Automated RT tester” tool is compatible only with a few versions of GSDML files. See the document “PN_Versions_for_certifications” included in the download.

Create a project

Use the menu File > New > “Device Test Project”. Follow the wizard. Enter the MAC address of the IO-Device. If you use the Profinet switch (device “B”) you can press the button “Get MAC Address”, as the ART-tester queries the network for the alias port-003.b.

On the “Profinet settings” page, select the GSDML file for the IO-Device.

Populate modules/submodules in slots/subslots by marking a module in the left column, and then click the -> arrow. To insert a submodule, mark the relevant submodule in the left column and mark the appropriate slot in the right column.

To remove from a slot or subslot, mark it (in the right column) and press the <- arrow.

Adjust settings

You need to adjust the device MAC address. This is done via the menu Tools > Options > DUT. Enter the value and press OK.

If the device does not have support for remote change of values, you might need to adjust the device station name, IP address and subnet mask. This is done via the menu Tools > Options > Setting. You might need to click the “Show expert settings”.

Run tests

Select the tests (in the left side menu) to run. Failing tests are time consuming, so start with a single test to verify the communication. Disable all tests by the left side menu. Press the “Deselect all” icon. Then open “Automated test cases” > “Standard Setup” > DCP, and enable “DCP - DCP_IDN”. Use the menu Project > Run.

When communication is verified, enable all relevant test cases.

The ART tester tool stores Wireshark files (.pcap files) in the project directory. See the EthernetDump subdirectory.

To export test reports as PDF, click the small printer icon in the top toolbar.

Checklist before starting ART Tester tests. Use correct:

  • Cabling

  • Software version and compile time options

  • Ethernet interface settings for ART Tester laptop

  • GSDML file

  • Plugged modules in ART Tester

  • Make sure no other device uses the IP address 192.168.0.50

Additional hardware

Some of the test cases requires additional hardware; a Profinet-enabled switch (“Device B”) and an IO-controller (“Device A”). Also a remote controlled power outlet can be used to simplify the tests.

Item

IP address

Description

Device under test (DUT)

192.168.0.50

ART tester on PC

192.168.0.25, 192.168.1.143

PLC (“Device A”)

192.168.0.100

Switch (“Device B”)

192.168.0.99

Neighbour (“Device D”)

192.168.0.98

To port 2 of DUT

Neighbour (“Device E”)

192.168.0.97

To highest port of DUT

Power outlet

192.168.1.244

Separate network

Profinet-enabled switch

Some of the test cases for the Automated RT Tester requires an Profinet-enabled switch. It is called “Device B” in the test setup documentation.

The test specification of version V 2.41 recommends the use of a Siemens Scalance X204IRT (article number 6GK5204-0BA00-2BA3). The ART Tester is rather strict regarding the model of Siemens Profinet switch. It should have IP address 192.168.0.99, netmask 255.255.255.0 and station name “b”. Use for example Codesys to scan for the device, and to adjust the IP settings. Alternatively, use SinecPni to change the IP address (see the Simatic page in this documentation).

The switch has a web interface, but it is not necessary to do any setting adjustments via the web interface. Log in to the web interface by directing your web browser to its IP address. User name “admin”, factory default password “admin”.

Connection of the switch ports is described in the table below:

Switch port

Connected to

P1

Personal computer running Automated RT Tester

P2

IO-controller (“Device A” port X1 P1)

P3

Device under test (DUT) running p-net

The Automated RT tester will detect “Device B” by itself. No configuration is required in the Automated RT tester menu.

The setting “Use IEC V2.2 LLDP mode” available via the STEP7 Profinet setup tool controls the format of the sent portID in LLDP frames. With the “Use IEC V2.2 LLDP mode” enabled the portID is sent as port-001, while it is sent as port-001.b if disabled. The latter format is used in Profinet 2.3 and newer. The ART tester requires the LLDP format to be in the 2.2 format, otherwise it will complain about portID length. One way to restore the behavior to the 2.2 format is to do a factory reset of the switch via the web interface or by pressing the SET button for more than 20 seconds (if the button not is disabled in the web interface).

Remote controlled power outlet

The Automated RT Tester can control an “Anel Net-PwrCtrl” power outlet via Ethernet. It must be connected via a separate Ethernet interface on the personal computer. Use a static IP address 192.168.1.243 with subnet mask to 255.255.255.0 on that interface.

The Power outlet has a default IP address of 192.168.0.244, and it has a built-in web server. Enter its IP address in your web browser to log in (username and password printed on the hardware). (You might need to temporary set your Ethernet interface to IP 192.168.0.1 and subnet mask to 255.255.255.0) Modify the IP settings (on the “Einstellung” page) to use a static IP address of 192.168.1.244. On the “Steuerung” page you can control the individual power outputs.

Connect power for your device under test to connector number 3 on the power outlet.

Test the functionality from Automated RT Tester by clicking on the symbol to the left of the “PowerOutlet” text in the tool bar. The symbol to the right of the “PowerOutlet” text shows a green check mark when the outputs are on, and a black cross when the outputs are off (or when the power outlet not is connected).

Power outlet

Connected to

1

PLC “A”

2

Profinet enabled switch “B”

3

Device under test (DUT) running p-net

4

Neighbour device “D”, connected to DUT port 2

5

Neighbour device “E”, connected to DUT highest port number

Hardware naming

Different types of Siemens hardware are used for the conformance test. In order to simplify how the different units should be connected together, a list of Siemens naming conventions is provided here:

  • AI: Analog input module

  • AQ: Analog output module

  • BA: Basic

  • BA: Busadapter (with RJ45 or fiber optic connectors)

  • BU: BaseUnit (for mounting input and output modules)

  • CM: Communication module

  • CU: Ethernet connector (copper wires)

  • DI: Digital input module

  • DP: Profibus DP

  • DQ: Digital output module

  • F-: Fail safe

  • FC: Fast Connect (A bus adapter for network cables)

  • HF: High feature

  • HS: High speed

  • IM: Interface Module

  • L+: +24 V DC

  • M: Ground connection

  • MLFB: Article number (order number) Maschinen Lesbare Fabrikate Bezeichnung

  • MP: ?

  • P: Port

  • PN: Profinet

  • R: Ring port for media redundancy

  • SM: Special module

  • SP: Scalable Peripherals

  • ST: Standard

  • TM: Technology module

  • X: Interface

Siemens IO-device for verification of multi-port devices

It is called “Device D” in the test setup documentation.

Part

Comments

Interface module ET200 IM155-6PN/2HF

Digital output module DQ 132

In slot 1 (closest to interface module)

Digital input module DI 131

In slot 2

Base uint A0 (24 VDC, light colored)

One for each input/output module

Bus adapter

With two RJ45 connectors

Server module

Delivered with the interface module. Put it in slot 3.

See the Profinet test specification for part numbers.

Light-colored bus adapters are used for supply voltage distribution. The cyan-colored (auxiliary) terminals on bus-adapters are all connected together. If you only use light-colored bus adapters, then the cyan-colored terminals on one bus adapter are isolated from the corresponding terminals on other bus adapters.

Connect +24 V to the red terminals of the interface module and the base units. Connect 0 V to the blue terminals of the interface module and the base units.

Connect a button via wires to the digital input (DI) module. Connect it between DI.7 (pin 18) and and +24 V. The LED “.7” on the input module will be green when the button is pressed.

The LED “.7” on the digital output module (DQ) will be green when the output is high (+24 V).

Use the Ethernet connector P1R.

_images/SimaticIoDevice.jpg

See the page on setting up a Simatic PLC in this documentation for instructions on usage.

Make sure that the LLDP frames are in the legacy LLDP format, where the PortId is “port-001” instead of “port-001.d”. This is done via the setting “Use IEC V2.2 LLDP mode”, available in the STEP7 Profinet setup tool for PLCs.

Set up Cisco SF352-08P switch

For multiport Profinet devices, also SNMP-communication to non-Profinet devices is verified. This Cisco switch can be used for that purpose. Replaces “Device D” in the test setup.

The system LED flashes during startup, and lights steady when the switch is properly set up and running. Note that the boot time can be around 100 seconds.

Connect an Ethernet cable to port G1. Set your laptop IP address to 192.168.1.143 and netmask to be 255.255.255.0. Log in to 192.168.1.254. Default username is cisco and password is cisco. Change password when prompted.

Set the IP address via the left side menu “IP configuration” -> “IPv4 Management and Interfaces” -> “IPv4 Interface”. Click “Add” and enter the static IP address 192.168.0.98. Use netmask 255.255.255.0. The switch will change IP address to a new subnet, so you might need to change your laptop network setting before connecting to the new IP address.

Adjust LLDP settings via menu Administration -> “Discovery - LLDP” -> Properties. In the page top bar, set “Display mode” to Advanced. Set “Chassis ID Advertisement” to “MAC Address”.

Via Administration -> “Discovery - LLDP” -> “Port settings” select port FE1 and click Edit. Enable SNMP notification. Select the optional TLVs that start with “802.3”.

Via the menu Security -> “TCP/UDP Services”, enable “SNMP Service”.

In the page top bar, set “Display mode” to Advanced. Add a SNMP community via the left side menu SNMP -> Communities and click Add. The community string should be “public”. Set “SNMP Management Station” to “All”. Click “Apply” and “Close”.

In the top of the page click the “Save” icon.

For the actual measurements, use the port 1 on the Cisco switch.

Verify the SNMP communication to the Cisco switch:

snmpwalk -v1 -c public 192.168.0.98

Tips and ideas

If you end up with Pass with Hint "The device made a EPM Request from a not Profinet port", that means that wrong source port was used when sending UDP messages. See the page on Linux in this documentation on how to adjust the ephemeral port range.

If your software version indicates that it is a prototype version (letter “P”) the Automated RT Tester will mark this as pass with hint.

The Automated RT Tester has a convenient feature for remotely setting the station name, IP address, netmask and gateway of the device under test (DUT). Use the menu Tools > “Set DUT name and IP”. It will change the settings of the IO device via DCP communication. It is also possible to do a factory reset of the IO device.

Reduce timeout values to speed up testing

It is possible to reduce the timeout values used by Automated RT Tester. This can be convenient during development, in order to speed up the tests. Use the menu Tools > Options, and enable “Show expert settings”. The time settings are found on the “Expert Settings” tab. The times are given in milliseconds. Remember to use the default values when doing pre-certification testing.

These values have large impact on test execution times:

  • ApplicationReadyReqTimeout

  • ConnectResTimeout

  • DcpResetToFactoryTestSetupTime

  • DutBootUpTime

  • ReleaseArResTimeout

  • StandardTestSetupBootTime

  • WriteResTimeout

Relevant test cases for conformance class A

Test case

Notes

DCP_1

Power cycle 8 times.

DCP_2

Power cycle 2 times.

DCP_3

Power cycle 2 times.

DCP_4

Fast

DCP_ALIAS

Requires additional hardware (“Device B”)

DCP_IDN

Fast.

DCP_NAME_1

Power cycle 4 times.

DCP_NAME_2

Power cycle 4 times.

DCP_ResetToFactory

DCP_OPTIONS_SUBOPTIONS

DCP_Router

DCP_Access

Fast.

DCP_VLAN

Power cycle 2 times

DCP IP-parameter Remanence

Power cycle 4 times.

Behavior Scenario 1 to 9

Power cycle

Behavior Scenario 10

Power cycle 7 times.

Behavior Scenario 11

Different Access Ways

Requires additional hardware (“Device B”)

PDEV_CHECK_ONEPORT

Requires additional hardware (“Device B”). Power cycle 3 times.

Diagnosis

Requires additional hardware (“Device B”). Power cycle twice.

Alarm

Requires additional hardware (“Device B”)

AR-ASE

Power cycle

IP_UDP_RPC_I&M_EPM

Power cycle

RTC

Requires additional hardware (“Device B”)

VLAN

Turn off IO-controller (“device A”)

Different access ways port-to-port

Use port-to-port set up

Manual: DCP_Signal

Flash Signal LED. Fast.

Manual: Behavior of ResetToFactory

Power cycle 4 times.

Manual: Checking of sending RTC frames

Fast

Not automated: DataHoldTimer

PLC required. Use network tap at DUT.

Not automated: Interoperability

PLC required

Not automated: Interoperability with controller

PLC required

Security Level 1

PLC required

Relevant test cases for conformance class B

Set the GSDML file attributes ConformanceClass="B" and SupportedProtocols="SNMP;LLDP".

  • Behavior scenario 10

  • Topology discovery check, standard setup. Requires additional hardware (“Device B”).

  • Topology discovery check, non-Profinet-neighbour setup

  • Port-to-port

  • Behavior of reset to factory (manual)

Additional test cases for multi-port devices

Requires additional hardware (“Device B”, “Device D” and Cisco switch).

  • PDEV_RECORDS

  • Topology discovery check, standard setup.

  • Topology discovery check, non-Profinet setup. Uses Cisco switch. Power cycle twice.

For “port-to-port” testing on devices with multiple ports, connect the port directly to the ART tester laptop. Leave other ports on the device not connected.

Relevant test cases for legacy startup mode

Legacy startup mode is defined in Profinet version 2.2 and earlier. Set the attribute StartupMode in the GSDML file to "Legacy;Advanced". Also the attributes PNIO_Version and NumberOfAR affects the ART tester behavior.

  • SM_Legacy

  • Different Access Ways

  • Different Access Ways port-to-port

  • DCP

  • AR-ASE

  • IP_UDP_RPC_I&M_EPM

  • Behavior

  • FSU (if also supporting fast startup)

  • Interoperability (use a legacy PLC)

  • Interoperability with controller (use a legacy PLC)

Relevant test cases for fast startup (FSU)

Set the parameters ParameterizationSpeedupSupported="true" and DCP_HelloSupported="true". The attribute PowerOnToCommReady="700" describes the startup time in milliseconds.

  • FSU

  • Different Access Ways

  • Manual FSU test case

  • Hardware (no auto-negotiation)

Relevant test cases for DHCP

Set the AddressAssignment attribute to DHCP.

  • DHCP

Other tests

Your GSDML file should pass the verification with the “GSDMLcheck” tool.

Details on tests with PLC

Load PLC program

Verify that the sample application PLC program is working properly with your IO-device. Button1 should be able to control the state of data LED (LED1).

Interoperability

Run with PLC for 10 minutes without errors. If the device under test has more than one port, there should be 5 IO-devices connected to the non-PLC port.

The timing should be the fastest allowed according to the GSDML file, and use 3 “accepted update cycles without IO data”. Record startup and data exchange using Wireshark.

In the Wireshark file, make sure IOPS and IOCS in the cyclic data from the IO-device have the value GOOD after it has sent the “application ready” message. Also verify that there have been no alarms (sort the frames by protocol).

  • “Record data”?

  • ExpectedIdentification is equal to the RealIdentification?

  • How to create additional net load? (using DCP Identify all)

  • Implicit read?

Data Hold Timer

Run with PLC. The timing should be the fastest allowed according to the GSDML file, and use 3 “accepted update cycles without IO data”. Record startup and data exchange using Wireshark.

Unplug network cable from the PLC.

In the Wireshark file:

  • Count the number of cyclic data frames sent by the IO-device before the alarm frame appears. It is allowed that 3-6 data frames are sent before the alarm frame.

  • At startup the first valid data frame should be sent within the data hold time.

  • The IOCS in the cyclic data from the IO-device should have the value GOOD after the “application ready” message has been sent.

  • Verify the data cycle time.

Repeat the cable unplugging measurements with reduction ratios (1), 2, 4, 8 and 16. With a cycle time of for example 1 ms this corresponds to a frame send interval of 1 ms to 16 ms, and a data hold time of 3 ms to 48 ms.

Check that a LLDP frame is sent within 5 seconds, and then every 5 seconds. The TTL value in the LLDP frame should be 20 seconds. The MAUtype, “autonegotiation supported” and “autonegotiation enabled” must be correct.

Interoperability with controller

Run with PLC. The timing should be the fastest allowed according to the GSDML file, and use 3 “accepted update cycles without IO data”. Record startup and data exchange using Wireshark.

Verify that the outputs are according to the manual of your IO-device when you do these actions (repeat several times):

  • PLC powered off

  • PLC powered on. The program should be running.

  • Switch the PLC to stop.

  • Switch the PLC to run.

  • Disconnect cable from PLC.

  • Reconnect the PLC cable.

In the Wireshark file, make sure IOPS and IOCS in the cyclic data from the IO-device have the value GOOD after it has sent the “application ready” message.

  • Record data?

Security Level 1 tester

A PLC program is used to both establish cyclic data communication, and to continuously read out parameter values from the IO-device under test (DUT). A neighbour device “D” is connected to port 2 of the DUT, and the PLC will control the digital inputs and outputs of device D.

A program running on a Linux laptop will generate additional network load. Depending on the result, the DUT will be assigned net load class 1 to 3.

See also the guideline “PROFINET IO Security Level 1”.

It can be useful to run the other PLC-based tests before, to find out the shortest cycle time useful when there is no additional network load.

PLC program

Use the STEP7 project from the test bundle, and import it into the TIA portal. In Siemens TIA Portal, open the file “normal_d_V2.40.0_V15.1.zap15_1” as an existing project. Give the path to a local directory that will be used for the project.

The block “Main [OB0]” will call the “FC001_Test_Programm”, and it will also read and set the digital inputs and outputs on neighbour device D.

Data block “DB003_RECORD_Index” contains an array of record numbers (parameters) that are to be read from the IO-device. It also contains a counter value keeping track of which entry in the array that is being used right now. The block “Startup” will initialize this counter value.

The “FC001_Test_Programm” function will call “FB001_RDREC”, and then will the counter value be increased.

The “FB001_RDREC” function block will read out a parameter from the IO-device and store any error value. It should be maximum 100 ms from one response until the next request is sent out by the PLC.

Data block “DB002_RECORD_data” has a large array of bytes for storing the record data read from the IO-device.

Device D should have a digital input module and a digital output module. It should have a cycle time of 1 ms and an IP address 192.168.0.98. If the device “D” is not exactly the variant you have, you need to replace it with another IO-device with digital inputs and outputs. Default connection:

  • Input %I0.0 - Ix_Req (Enables continuous readout of parameter values)

  • Input %I0.1 - Ix_ACK (Acknowledges errors)

  • Output %Q0.0 - Qx_Error

  • Output %Q0.1 - Qx_Error_RDREC

Delete the existing “dut” device. Import the GSDML file of your device (the DUT), and insert you device. Plug relevant modules into the slots. Give it the station name “dut”, and it should use the IP address 192.168.0.50. Connect it to the PLC via the “Network view”.

In the “Device view” select the DUT, and in the “Device overview” select the DUT line. In Properties > “System constants” find the hardware identifier number for the line “dut~HEAD”.

Adjust cyclic time setting of the DUT.

In the “Main [OB1]” block make sure that the hardware identifier is set to the relevant value:

Ihw_ID := "dut~HEAD",

or to the value found above (for example):

Ihw_ID := 261,

Create a watch table for the relevant entries.

Compile the hardware configuration and the software, and download to the PLC.

Tester software for additional network load

Install the tester software on an Ubuntu machine, or in a virtual Ubuntu machine running on Windows. The IP address should be 192.168.0.30. See the PDF in the “Security Level 1”/”tester” folder in the downloaded test bundle. The program ends up in /root/Netload. See the PDF how to start the program.

The SL1-tester has a number of template .pcap files, and rewrites those files with the MAC address of the SL1-tester laptop and the DUT. The MAC of the DUT is found with the arping Linux command. Actual sending of frames is done with the packETHcli Linux command.

Set up hardware

Set the station name of the DUT to “dut” and the IP address to 192.168.0.50. Use a temporary station name, to be able to detect device reboots.

Set the station name of device D to “d” and the IP address to 192.168.0.98.

The digital input “Ix_Req” is used to enable continuous read out of parameter values. Set it to high level to start the readout. Verify that there is cyclic communication, and that there is repeated acyclic data read out.

Use a non-Profinet switch (no LLDP packet filtering) to connect the device under test (DUT, port 1), the PLC and the personal computer running the Security Level 1 tester software. Connect neighbour device D to port 2 of the DUT.

Synchronize clock of the PLC with the the clock of the laptop running the tester software, as we later read the diagnostic log of the PLC.

Run the tests

For a class B device with two ports you need to run one “normal” test case and one “faulty” test case. After the “faulty” test case the communication should be good again after the additional network load has stopped. During the “normal” test case the communication should not be lost, and this is verified by studying the diagnostic log of the PLC afterwards.

For net load class I, the “normal” test case takes approximately 1 hour 40 min.

In the TIA portal, make sure you are “Offline” with the PLC (otherwise there will be even more additional network load).

Make sure that the software version you run on the DUT has the correct settings, for example log level.

  • Start the PLC program, and verify that the parameter readout is running (using Wireshark)

  • Start the SL1-tester in “faulty” mode.

  • Verify that the PLC communication still is good after the SL1-tester is done.

  • Start the SL1-tester in “normal” mode.

  • Verify that there hasn’t been any communication breakdown, by looking in the PLC diagnostic buffer (via TIA portal).

Each test case has a duration of 1 minute, except case 15 - 16 and 116 - 117 which runs for 3 minutes each. Test case 101 and 102 runs until the sequence is completed. If the tests take longer than that, wrong settings have been used for the SL1-tester.

Troubleshooting

If the test case ““Different access ways port-to-port” fails, verify that your laptop Ethernet interface speed is set to 100 Mbit/s and that any Windows or Siemens (TIA portal) LLDP implementation on the Ethernet interface is disabled.